Since ancient times mankind dreamed of conquering the air space. Perhaps the first attempt to fly was implemented in China, where the first flight of a man who was bound (as a punishment) to a paper snakes was described in the VI century BC. E.
The first controlled flight on the wings of fabric stretched over a wooden struts, a type of the first hang glider, committed by Abbas Ibn Farnas in Spain in the IX century A.D.
In 1630-1632 Turkish scholar Hezarphen Ahmed Chalabi on a device with wings flew Bosphorus. He jumped down from the Galata tower (height of 55 meters) in Istanbul and presumably flew a distance of about 3 km, landing on the other (Asian) side of the Bosphorus without any injuries. Chalabi was engaged in designing of his flying device long before the flight. And in 1633 brother of Hezarphen, Lagary Hasan Celebi flew on the rocket, which was made up of large cells with conical peak filled with gunpowder. It was the first known example of the flight of the manned rocket and apparatus artificial engine. The flight took place during the celebrations in honour of the birth of a daughter of Sultan Murad IV. It is known that Lagary made a soft landing by means of wings attached to his body and played the role of a parachute after gunpowder was used. The flight was estimated to be about 20 seconds, the maximum height reached about 300 meters. Lagary was rewarded by the Sultan of money and high military position.
There is an entry in the minutes of the meeting of the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1 July 1754: "Honorable Advisor Lomonosov showed invented by him machine, called “aerodynamic”, which should be used by wings which were moving horizontally in various directions of the spring force, which is usually supplied with the watch, pushing air (drop it down), why the machine will go up in the upper layers of air. In the same year M.V. Lomonosov wrote that he has made a machine that, lifting herself up, can raise a small thermometer. It was a model of the helicopter and the world's first documented practical development of the flying vehicle heavier than air - helicopter with co-axial screws. However, for that time the implementation of the idea of the helicopter proved to be too difficult.
The first serious attempt of flight of the person have been implemented in Europe in the late eighteenth century on anchored balloons filled with hot air. Thus, the first known human flight was staged in Paris in 1783 Jean-Francois Pilatre des Rosiers and the Marquis de Arlandes flew 8 km on the balloon which was filled with hot air. This balloon was invented by Montgolfier brothers. Balloon heated by the fire of burnt wood but not being controlled. It was moved by the will of the wind.
In 1854-1855 the Navy of the Russian fleet A.M.Mozhayskiy addresses to the idea of aircraft. He became involved in serious exploration in this field several later and came to the conclusion about the necessity to develop an aircraft with fixed-wing, which would be used as a principle of dynamic flight. The first aircraft consisted of ships (the fuselage), which housed the crew, powerplant and avionics, two steam engines and four-wheeled chassis. There were provided the cable control panel , hand wheel , fuel tanks and some devices, including optical sight on the plane. In the construction of the first plane was applied monoplane scheme, which had the largest distribution in modern aircraft construction.
Wright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, conditionally became pioneers in the era of rapid development of aviation. In December 17, 1903 Wright made the first long controlled flight on the apparatus heavier than air equipped by engines «Flyer» in the sand dunes at a distance of 8 km from Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The first few hundred feet the plane rose and fell but they managed successfully. 59 seconds was overcome a distance of 260 m. After landing frame was badly damaged, but the main part of the machine is left intact. Brothers estimated that the device could be brought back to airworthy condition after one to two days. Their plane was a biplane type «duck» - the pilot was placed on the lower wing, rudder was at the rear, steering wheel of height was in the front. Bistar wings were covered with a thin offwhite muslin. Engine «Flyers» was a four-stroke, with a starting capacity of 16 horsepower and weighed 80 kilograms.
The first successes of Russian aviation dated back to 1910. June 4, Professor of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute Prince Alexander Kudashev flight a few tens of meters in the plane-biplane of own design.
June 16, the young Kyiv aircraft designer Igor Sikorsky first raised its plane in the air. Three days later engineer Jakov Gakkel flying on a plane of an unusual for that time scheme of biplane with the fuselage (bimonoplane).
Talented hands of aircraft designers have written powerfully a page about the development and formation aviation in the analy of the XX century`s history. Aviation became one of the major branches of the national economy of all countries of the world.
Today the Russian aviation is proud of its aircraft designer`s Bureau, has created the masterpieces of technical thought.